Hypatia; daughter of the mathematician Theon (c. 335-405) last librarian of Alexandria (in Roman controlled Egypt), who raised her like a boy. Her scientific teaching was perceived as pagan. Hypatia was ambushed and skinned alive by a mob of Christian fanatics. Arguably, her murder marks the beginning of the Dark Ages.
First woman Arctic explorer, Josephine Peary, wife of Robert Peary, was a First Lady of the Arctic, “Mother of the Snow Baby,” and a veteran of half a dozen polar expeditions who’d outlived her husband by three decades.