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The Jewish refugee ship "Pan-York," carrying new citizens to the recently established state of Israel, docks at Haifa. The ship sailed from southern Europe to Israel, via Cyprus. Haifa, Israel, July 9, 1948.  — National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md.

The Jewish refugee ship "Pan-York," carrying new citizens to the recently established state of Israel, docks at Haifa. The ship sailed from southern Europe to Israel, via Cyprus. Haifa, Israel, July 9, 1948. — National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md.

Aliyah Bet - Illegal immigration, also called Ha'apalah, conducted at the initiative of immigrant groups in Europe, the Jewish Agency and in some cases with the help of the United States and even the Nazis. In Palestine, Aliya Bet was organized beginning in 1939 by the "Mossad l'Aliya Bet" to bring immigrants to mandatory Palestine after immigration was restricted by the British White Paper of 1939.

Aliyah Bet - Illegal immigration, also called Ha'apalah, conducted at the initiative of immigrant groups in Europe, the Jewish Agency and in some cases with the help of the United States and even the Nazis. In Palestine, Aliya Bet was organized beginning in 1939 by the "Mossad l'Aliya Bet" to bring immigrants to mandatory Palestine after immigration was restricted by the British White Paper of 1939.

British soldiers removing Jews from the Exodus in the Port of Haifa on July 18, 1947, with the gaping holes in the ship from the ramming of British destroyers; .

British soldiers removing Jews from the Exodus in the Port of Haifa on July 18, 1947, with the gaping holes in the ship from the ramming of British destroyers; .

The Hagana ship "The Jewish State"

The Hagana ship "The Jewish State"

Aliyah Bet was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews to the British Mandate for Palestine in violation of British White Paper of 1939 restrictions, in the years 1934-1948. In modern-day Israel it has also been called by the Hebrew term Ha'apala (Hebrew: ההעפלה‎; ascension). The Aliyah Bet is distinguished from the Aliyah Aleph, the limited Jewish immigration permitted by British authorities in the same period.

Aliyah Bet was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews to the British Mandate for Palestine in violation of British White Paper of 1939 restrictions, in the years 1934-1948. In modern-day Israel it has also been called by the Hebrew term Ha'apala (Hebrew: ההעפלה‎; ascension). The Aliyah Bet is distinguished from the Aliyah Aleph, the limited Jewish immigration permitted by British authorities in the same period.

Returning and Redemption Mikveh Israel (מקוה ישראל; “Hope of Israel”) was the first Jewish agricultural school in the Palestine, established in 1870 by Charles Netter of the Alliance Israelite Universelle on land leased from the Turkish Sultan, southeast of Tel Aviv.

Returning and Redemption Mikveh Israel (מקוה ישראל; “Hope of Israel”) was the first Jewish agricultural school in the Palestine, established in 1870 by Charles Netter of the Alliance Israelite Universelle on land leased from the Turkish Sultan, southeast of Tel Aviv.

Lydd Airport in Palestine, before israeli occupation in 1948 which turned it to today's Ben Gurion Airport

Lydd Airport in Palestine, before israeli occupation in 1948 which turned it to today's Ben Gurion Airport

Abandoned Juragua Nuclear Power Plant, Cuba(Construction began on one reactor in 1983 and on the second in 1985; at one point up to 450 Soviet technicians were hard at work onsite at Juragua. By the fall of 1992, over 90% of the first reactor’s infrastructure had been completed though well under half of the crucial reactor machinery had been installed. At this point, the fall of communism in the USSR threw a large monkey wrench into the works.)

Abandoned Juragua Nuclear Power Plant, Cuba(Construction began on one reactor in 1983 and on the second in 1985; at one point up to 450 Soviet technicians were hard at work onsite at Juragua. By the fall of 1992, over 90% of the first reactor’s infrastructure had been completed though well under half of the crucial reactor machinery had been installed. At this point, the fall of communism in the USSR threw a large monkey wrench into the works.)

Aliyah Bet ("illegal" immigration) ship "Tiger Hill," carrying Jewish refugees from Europe, lands in Tel Aviv, Palestine. Jewish residents of Palestine greet the ship. September 1, 1939.

Aliyah Bet ("illegal" immigration) ship "Tiger Hill," carrying Jewish refugees from Europe, lands in Tel Aviv, Palestine. Jewish residents of Palestine greet the ship. September 1, 1939.

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