Kirkuk, Iraq Earliest inhabitation: 2,200 BC Located around 150 miles north of Baghdad, Kirkuk stands on the site of the ancient Assyrian capital of Arrapha. Its strategic importance was recognised by the Babylonians and the Media, who have also controlled the city. The ruins of a 5,000-year-old citadel are still visible, while the city is now the headquarters of Iraqs petroleum industry.
The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is a conflict that is ongoing for centuries now. Kurds have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan. The main rebel group is the Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK, which was founded on November 27, 1978. On August 15, 1984 when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Recently they declared a cease-fire after the capture of its leader Abdullah Öcalan. However the problem is still present.