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34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Grace (Melzia) Bumbry (born January 4, 1937), an American opera singer, is considered one of the leading mezzo-sopranos of her generation, as well as a major soprano for many years. She was a member of a pioneering generation of singers who followed Marian Anderson (including Leontyne Price, Martina Arroyo, Shirley Verrett and Reri Grist) in the world of classical music and paved the way, again, for future Black American opera and classical singers.

Zitkala-Sa (1876-1938) was a Yankton Sioux woman of Native American & white mixed ancestry. She was well educated and went on to become an author, musician, composer and later went on to work for the reform of Indian policies in the United States. ~~ photo by Gertrude Käsebier

Rosalind Franklin did much of the discovery work that led to the understanding of the structure of DNA. The story of DNA is a tale of competition and intrigue, told one way in James Watson's book The Double Helix, and quite another in Anne Sayre's study, Rosalind Franklin and DNA. James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins received a Nobel Prize for the double-helix model of DNA in 1962, four years after Franklin's death.

JoJosephSmith Date: Tue, 1897-05-04 On this date in 1897, African American inventor Joseph H. Smith patented the sprinkler. This African-American inventors Patent No. is #581.785.sephSmith

Dr. Mae Jemison became the first African American woman in space when she served as Mission Specialist aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47 in 1992. (photo: NASA)

In 1866 Vinnie Ream was selected by the U.S. Congress to sculpt a memorial statue of President Abraham Lincoln. This made her the first female artist commissioned to create a work of art for the United States government. Her selection, however, was accompanied by controversy because she was young, female, and had friendships with members of Congress. Despite the objections, Ream was given the commission and the statue of Lincoln was unveiled in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol in…

Dr. Clelia Mosher (1863 - 1940) was a brilliant and extraordinary woman who made debunking the claims of Victorian medicine regarding the frailty of the female body her life's work. As a young woman she was forced to face these stereotypes head on when her father forbade her to attend college due to her sickly childhood. In order to encourage her to stay at home, he built a sort of "educational laboratory" in their family greenhouse. He encouraged her to learn botany and horticulture in…

Microbiologist and pediatrician Hattie Elizabeth Alexander began working on Haemophilus influenza in the early 1930s. The bacteria caused influenzal meningitis with a near 100% mortality rate in infants and children. Alexander’s development of an antiserum as well as her work to standardize diagnosis and treatment, dropped the mortality rate down below 25%. | National Women's History Museum | #NWHM #WomensHistory #HattieElizabethAlexander #WomenInScience