John Fowles alluded to the Shakespearean play The Tempest in his novel. Clegg thinks of himself as Ferdinand, who is the lover of Miranda, but Miranda refers to him as Caliban. In the play, Caliban attempts to rape Miranda and is considered "the lowest" by Prospero and Miranda. In the novel, Clegg refuses to have any sort of physical relationship with Miranda, but he still has authority over her. Miranda also thinks of him as being of a lower class than herself in the novel.
J.M.W. Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840 i. Inspired by an actual incident during which slaves were cast overboard during a typhoon ii. Exhibited at an international anti-slavery conference whose goal was to end slavery around the world iii. Turner wrote a poem describing the scene (romanticism)