immigrants from Denmark, Netherlands, and Germany spoke a cluster of related dialects falling within the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Their language began to develop its own distinctive features in isolation from the continental Germanic languages, and by 600 A.D. had developed into what we call Old English or Anglo-Saxon, covering the territory of most of modern England.
The Viking era Jelling Cup, said to be used by Gorm the Old (approx. 900- 958 AD), the first historically authenticated King of Denmark and the first Viking ruler to tolerate Christianity. This silver chalice was found at Gorm's capital at Jelling, in Jylland, Denmark.
The Dumfries hoard is the most important Viking discovery in Scotland for over 100 years. The items from within the vessel, which may have been accumulated over a number of generations, reveal objects from across Europe and from other cultures with non-Viking origins.
The Lewis Chessmen, probably made in Norway, about AD 1150-1200. At this period, the Western Isles, where the chessmen were buried, were part of the Kingdom of Norway, not Scotland. It seems likely they were buried for safe keeping on route to be traded in Ireland.