immigrants from Denmark, Netherlands, and Germany spoke a cluster of related dialects falling within the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Their language began to develop its own distinctive features in isolation from the continental Germanic languages, and by 600 A.D. had developed into what we call Old English or Anglo-Saxon, covering the territory of most of modern England.
Sea going vessels were often mounted with a dragon or serpents head on the prow. The dragon head was simply to frighten away sea monsters and spirits. When approaching land the head could be removed to prevent scaring off the friendly land spirits
Disc Brooches from Viking York. The prime function of these brooches was as dress fastenings. They were frequently made of base metals, as is the case with all those shown here, but they were often highly decorated.