immigrants from Denmark, Netherlands, and Germany spoke a cluster of related dialects falling within the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Their language began to develop its own distinctive features in isolation from the continental Germanic languages, and by 600 A.D. had developed into what we call Old English or Anglo-Saxon, covering the territory of most of modern England.
Celtic Gold Stater of Addedomaros. (S.202) Catuvellauni/Trinovantes tribes. Late 1st century BC. Obv - Addorsed crescents ornamented with pellets and linear elements. Rev - Horse, branch and spiral / wheel. Image by kind permission of: Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctioneers Inc.
The Lewis Chessmen, probably made in Norway, about AD 1150-1200. At this period, the Western Isles, where the chessmen were buried, were part of the Kingdom of Norway, not Scotland. It seems likely they were buried for safe keeping on route to be traded in Ireland.
Disc Brooches from Viking York. The prime function of these brooches was as dress fastenings. They were frequently made of base metals, as is the case with all those shown here, but they were often highly decorated.