The Sumerians were the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (modern day Iraq). Sumer was often called the cradle of civilization. By the 4th millennium BC, it had established an advanced system writing, spectacular arts and architecture, astronomy and mathematics. The origin of the Sumerians remains a mystery till this day.
Pu'abi or Shab'ad "The Sumerian princess" : Jewelry and headdress of gold and imported precious stones such as carnelian and lapis lazuli from India and Afghanistan. From the Royal Cemetery of Ur. Early Dynastic, ca. 2400 BC. The National Museum of Iraq - Baghdad