Stereotype threat is when a culturally entrenched idea of a group/gender/racial identity directly affect the performance and participation of those people. see this link for study http://arts.uwaterloo.ca/~sspencer/spencerlab/articles/2001-Quinn-Spencer.pdf
Thin Ice: Stereotype Threat and Black College Students When capable black college students fail to perform as well as their white counterparts, the explanation often has less to do with preparation or ability than with the threat of stereotypes about their capacity to succeed. Educators at Stanford who tested this hypothesis report their findings and propose solutions
Take away: "We should replace high-stakes, one-shot tests with the kind of unobtrusive and ongoing assessments that give teachers and parents a more accurate sense of children’s true abilities. We should also put in place techniques for reducing anxiety and building self-confidence that take advantage of our social natures. And we should ensure that the social climate at our children’s schools is one of warmth and trust, not competition and exclusion."