In 1929, a group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin. The map shows the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of South America, and the northern coast of Antarctica. The northern coastline of Antarctica is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling mystery of the map shows the coastline under the ice. Geological evidence confirms that the latest date Queen Maud Land could have been charted in an ice-free state is 4000 BC.
Piri Reis was a 16th century Ottoman Admiral famous for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation), a book which contains detailed information on navigation as well as extremely accurate charts describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea.
Venice, as rendered by Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis in his Kitab-i Bahriye ("Book of the Sea"), a book of portolan charts and sailing directions produced in the early 16th century. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Bildarchiv Preussischer, Kulturbesitz
Piri Reis Map, 1513 A.D. The Antarctic coastline is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling however is not so much how Piri Reis managed to draw such an accurate map of the Antarctic region 300 years before it was discovered, but that the map shows the coastline under the ice.