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Historical Map of Europe, 1000 AD


Brooch, 970–1030 Ottonian (probably northern Italy) Gold with pearls, glass, and cloisonné enamel. Decorated with miniature architectural forms. 1.5" in diameter.


So the Africans were responsible for the enslavement of other Africans? Or, was it the Pope who authorized the enslavement of West Africans. Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas on 18 June, 1452. It authorized Alfonso V of Portugal to reduce any “Saracens (Muslims/Moors) and pagans (An advanced person without a religion) and any other unbelievers” to perpetual slavery. This facilitated the Portuguese slave trade from West Africa.


The Vatican Archive: the Pope's private library

The Vatican Archive - contains accounts of the trial of the Knights Templar held at Chinon in August 1308; a threatening note from 1246 in which Ghengis Khan’s grandson demands that Pope Innocent IV travel to Asia to ‘pay service and homage'; a letter from Lucretia Borgia to Pope Alexander VI; Papal Bulls excommunicating Martin Luther; correspondence between the Court of Henry VIII and Clement VII; and an exchange of letters between Michelangelo and Paul III.


Photo of Charles Brandon, Duke Of Suffolk for fans of Tudor History.


Exsurge Domine (Latin: Arise O Lord) is a papal bull issued on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the papacy. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's 95 theses and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions.


The clergy feasting in the jaws of a devil Woodcut Attributed to Matthias Gerung,Formerly attributed to Hans Weiditz, Germany, 1520-1560.


Isabel I (1451-1504), Queen of Castile-Leon (1474-1504) in her own right. She was the daughter of King Juan II and his wife, Isabel of Portugal. She was The Princess of Girona (1469-1479) and Queen of Aragon (1479-1504) as the wife of King Ferrando II (King Fernando V as her co-ruler). Her surviving children were The Infante Juan The Prince of Asturias, and the Infantas Isabel, Juana, Maria, and Catalina.


A papal bull is a special kind of patent or charter issued by a pope. It is named after the seal (bulla) that is appended to the end to authenticate it.


Pope Pius V (1536-1572) In 1570 he issued a papal Bull, excommunicating Elizabeth I and absolving her subjects from allegience to her. This drastic step was not approved by Philip II of Spain and it exacerbated the already perilous situation for the Catholics of England. Pius V gave his written approval for the Ridolfi plot of 1571 whereby Mary Queen of Scots would replace Elizabeth I on the English throne