Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the visible properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).
A hidden complex of archaeological monuments has been uncovered around Stonehenge using hi-tech methods of scanning below the Earth’s surface. Photograph: Ludwig Boltzmann Institute. “What we are starting to see is the largest surviving stone monument, preserved underneath a bank, that has ever been discovered in Britain and possibly in Europe,” said Vince Gaffney, an archaeologist at Bradford University who leads the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape project. “This is archaeology on steroids.”
Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) founded statistical mechanics, which describes large numbers of atoms by using averages. His most important contributions were to the study of kinetic energy, including the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for molecular speeds in a gas. He also showed that a system's entropy is a measure of its disorder, and that the amount of disorder in the universe tends to increase. This lithograph by Rudolf Fenzl was created around 1898.