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from Mail Online

Scientists pinpoint exact area of the brain where Alzheimer's begins

A critical but vulnerable region in the brain, the locus coeruleus (pictured in blue), is subject to damage decades before symptoms of dementia appear, scientists have discovered

Alzheimer's Disease: New Study Reveals Locus Coeruleus As First Brain Structure Affected By Disease


Ketamine blocks glutamate NMDA receptors in the brain. Increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, important for long-term memory and the creation of new synapses) and restores healthy mushroom-shaped spines on the dendrites of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. It may also affect the monoamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine. In rats, increased the firing rate of NE neurons in the locus coeruleus and also increased spontaneous firing dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area.


‘Ground Zero’ Of Alzheimer’s: Locus Coeruleus Identified As Critical Starting…

from Saatchi Art

Locus Coeruleus Painting by April Zanne Johnson

Saatchi Art Artist April Zanne Johnson; Painting, "Locus Coeruleus" #art

Noradrenergic Pathways: most important -- locus coeruleus of the dorsal pons.

Researchers highlight brain region, locus coeruleus, as 'ground zero' of Alzheimer's disease

The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs, and communicates with the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. The CTZ is close to the area postrema on the floor of the fourth ventricle & is outside of the BBB. The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include ACh, DA, histamine (H-1R), substance P, and 5-HT. The BBB is not as developed here, and drugs such as DA may stimulate the CTZ. ORs control the…


Locus coeruleus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia