John McCarthy (4 Sep 1927 – 24 Oct 2011) Computer and cognitive scientist. Coined term "artificial intelligence" (AI), developed LISP programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, and was very influential in the early development of AI. Received many accolades and honours, the Turing Award, United States National Medal of Science, and the Kyoto Prize.
In the 1940s and '50s, a group of eccentric geniuses—led by John von Neumann—gathered at the newly created Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Their joint project was the realization of the theoretical universal machine, an idea that had been put forth by mathematician Alan Turing.
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