Iberian Peninsula in 1157 AD The Reconquista had reached the Tejo river by the end of the 11th century but the Almoravid invasion prevented further expansion southwards. The only noteworthy military actions until mid 12th century happened in the Portuguese border where King D.Afonso Henriques managed to conquer the cities of Leiria, Santarém and Lisbon between 1135 and 1147: an exception in the otherwise stable borders between Christian and Muslim territories during the same period.
Celtic Tribes in Iberia. The Celts in the Iberian peninsula were traditionally thought of as living on the edge of the Celtic world of the La Tène culture that defined classical Iron Age Celts. Celtic or (Indo-European) Pre-Celtic cultures and populations did exist, even if their cultures do set them somewhat apart from the rest of the Celtic world in Antiquity. Albiones - western Asturias (Spain). Astures - Asturias and northern León (Spain), and west of Trás os Montes (Portugal).
The Celts of Celtic were an ethno-linguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had a similar culture. The Celtic languages form a branch of the larger Indo-European family. By the time speakers of Celtic languages enter history around 400 BC, they were already split into several language groups, and spread over much of Western continental Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, Ireland and Britain.
Scientists have completely mapped the genome of the "Young Man of Byrsa,” a Phoenician who lived 2,500 years ago, and whose remains were discovered outside Carthage in 1994. The Phoenicians were an influential seafaring people who originated in Lebanon around 1500 B.C. and then colonized much of the Mediterranean, including what is now Tunisia, where they founded Carthage. A complete map of the genome of Phoenician shows that his DNA most closely matched that of a modern-day person from…