Little is known of Horace Warner and nothing is known of his relationship to the nippers. Only 30 of these pictures survive, out of 240 he took in 1912 of the Spitalfields Nippers, East End London. They originally accompanied the annual reports of the charitable Bedford Institute, Quaker St, Spitalfields as illustrations of poverty, "but that is not the sum total of these beguiling photographs...spirited images of something more subtle and compelling, the elusive drama of childhood itself."
Roman roads, together with Roman aqueducts and the vast standing Roman army, constituted the three most impressive features of the Roman Empire. In Britain, as in their other provinces, the Romans constructed a comprehensive network of paved trunk roads (i.e. surfaced highways) during their nearly four centuries of occupation (43 - 410 AD).