How to Grow Peanuts. Plant peanuts in the sunniest patches of your garden for an extra no-hassle veggie. Contrary to popular belief, the peanut is not a nut; it is actually a vegetable belonging to the legume family, which includes peas and beans. These tropical natives of South America require about 120 days to mature, but fortunately they can withstand light spring and fall frosts. ‘Jumbo Virginia’ is a productive variety for home gardens.