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The Bellamy salute is the salute described by Francis Bellamy, to accompany the American Pledge of Allegiance, which he had authored. During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian fascists and Nazis adopted a salute which had the same form, which resulted in controversy over its use in the United States. It was officially replaced by the customary hand-over-heart method we see today when Congress amended the Flag Code on December 22, 1942.