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Detail of Map of Italy 5th century BC: Etruscan territory and sphere of influence. Mystery of History Volume 1, Lesson 70 #MOHI70


Etruscan bronze statuette of a haruspex wearing a pointed hat. C.600BC. Villa Giulia Etruscan national museum


Etruscan sarcophagus in the shape of an Etruscan house. C.700BC Florence archaeological museum


Sumerian is the earliest known writing system. Its origins can be traced back to about 8,000 BC.


Archaeologists in Italy have discovered what may be a rare sacred text in the Etruscan language that is likely to yield rich details about worship of a god or goddess.

Etruscan Gold Book: This is believed to be the oldest complete multiple page book found in the world. It is made of six plates of gold, each 5 x 4.5 cm, and bound with two rings. It dates to 600 BC.


The Etruscan language has been difficult to analyze, as It resembles no other language in Europe or elsewhere. The Etruscan language was spoken and written by the Etruscan civilization in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls). Etruscan was superseded by Latin, leaving only a few documents and some loanwords in Latin like Roma.


Stela inscribed in Etruscan. An inscribed stone slab unearthed at an Etruscan site in Tuscany is proving to contain one of the most difficult texts to decipher. It was believed that the sixth-century BC stela would shed light on the still-mysterious Etruscan language, but so far it remains a puzzle. “To be honest, I’m not yet sure what type of text was incised on the stela,” says Rex Wallace, professor of classics at the Univ of Mass. Inscribed with vertical dots and at least 70 legible…

Etruscan book is the world's oldest multiple-page book in the lost Etruscan language and is on display in Bulgaria's National History Museum in Sofia. It contains six bound sheets of 24 carat gold, with illustrations of a horse-rider, a mermaid, a harp and soldiers. The book dates back to 600BC which is more than two-and-a-half millennia old. It has now been donated to the museum by its finder, on condition of anonymity. ~Ancient or Unique Artefacts~