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In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5. Phenyl groups are closely related to benzene. Phenyl groups have six carbon atoms bonded together in a hexagonal planar ring, five of which are bonded to individual hydrogen atoms, with the remaining carbon bonded to a substituent.

In chemistry, a lactone is a cyclic ester which can be seen as the condensation product of an alcohol group -OH and a carboxylic acid group -COOH in the same molecule. It is characterized by a closed ring consisting of two or more carbon atoms, and a single endocyclic oxygen coupled with an adjacent ketone (typical ester type functional group).β-propiolactone, formed from β-hydroxypropionic acid

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ScienceDirect.com - Neuron - Direct Activation of the Olfactory Cyclic Nucleotide–Gated Channel through Modification of Sulfhydryl Groups by NO Compounds

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When a carboxyl group is added to a ring the suffix -carboxylic acid is added to the name of the cyclic compound. The ring carbon attached to the carboxyl group is given the #1 location number.

In group theory, a cyclic number is a positive integer such that every group with that number of elements must be cyclic. Learn more at expii.