In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5. Phenyl groups are closely related to benzene. Phenyl groups have six carbon atoms bonded together in a hexagonal planar ring, five of which are bonded to individual hydrogen atoms, with the remaining carbon bonded to a substituent.
In chemistry, a lactone is a cyclic ester which can be seen as the condensation product of an alcohol group -OH and a carboxylic acid group -COOH in the same molecule. It is characterized by a closed ring consisting of two or more carbon atoms, and a single endocyclic oxygen coupled with an adjacent ketone (typical ester type functional group).β-propiolactone, formed from β-hydroxypropionic acid