In 1453, the Ottomans captured Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire. During the next two centuries, they brought their rule to much of the Middle East, North Africa, and southeastern Europe. Their navy dominated the eastern Mediterranean.
The Crusades: 1096 to 1289 - was a vicious invasion by the Europeans into the Holy Lands. The Christian Crusaders treated the Muslims and Jews harshly during these years, killing and taking over the land - a forgotten piece of history
During the postclassical period, two major civilizations formed in Europe. The Byzantine Empire was one of them. It was in western Asia and southeastern Europe and expanded into eastern Europe. The Byzantine maintained very high levels of political, economic, and cultural life between 500 and 1450 C.E.