Al-Razi & Al Biruni Al-razi was a scientist, alchemist and chemist, and mathematician. He also discovered the compounds for alcohol and kerosene. Many books were accredited to him about alchemy. Al-biruni was well known for work in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. He wrote 95 books on astronomy and mathematics. He devised his own way to determine the radius of the earth.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (4/5 September 973 – 13 December 1048), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني) in English, was a Khwarezmian Iranian Muslim scholar and polymath.
Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. He served more than...
[T]he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible. This question is most difficult to solve. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ab%C5%AB_Ray%E1%B8%A5%C4%81n_al-B%C4%ABr%C5%ABn%C4%AB#Legacy