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Chess piece Iran, Kashan, made late 13th C. On the brim he is identified as Sultan Tughril and dated 538 AH (1143–44 AD) referring to his reign The 12th C. historian Ravandi cites Seljuk Sultan Tughril II's prescription for victory on the battlefield: ‘Like a chess-player one has to observe the enemy’s moves as well as one’s own’. Stonepaste ware, painted black under a colourless glaze, partly stained turquoise and cobalt blue.


The House of wisdom Baghdad. At the House of Wisdom, scholars of many nationalities and religions translated into Arabic, Greek, Persian and Indian works on mathematics, logic, astronomy, philosophy and the exact sciences, and wrote commentaries on those texts as well as original works of their own.


ISLAMIC, Abbasid Caliphate, AV Gold Dinar, Madinat al-Salam; 157 AH


Ibn Tulun mosque in Cairo, "completed 879 A.D. in the Abbasid style, is arguably the oldest mosque in the city surviving in its original form and is the largest in terms of land area." (wikipedia) Always, my experience of this mosque is that it breathes peace - a calm, worshipful silence graces the heart.